Crop : When plants of the same kind are grown and cultivated at one place on a large scale,
it is called a crop.
In India, crops can be broadly categorised into two types based on seasons – Rabi and Kharif crops. Sowing of seeds at appropriate depths and distances gives good yield.
Good variety of seeds are sown after selection of healthy seeds.
Sowing is done by seed drills.
Soil needs replenishment and enrichment through the use of organic manure introduction of new crop varieties.
Basic practices of crop production:
(i) Preparation of Soil: One of the most important tasks in agriculture is to
turn the soil and loosen it.
The process of loosening and turning of the soil is
called tilling or ploughing.
(ii) Sowing: Sowing of seeds at appropriate depths and distances gives good yield.
Good variety of seeds is sown after selection of healthy seeds. Sowing is done by seed
(iii) Adding Manure and Fertilisers Soil needs replenishment and enrichment through the use of organic manure and fertilisers.
Use of chemical fertilisers
fertilisers has increased tremendously with the introduction of new crop varieties.
Fertiliser: The inorganic compounds containing nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. They are made in the factories.
Example: ammonium sulphate, potash, etc.
Manure: A natural substance prepared from decomposition of plant and animal wastes (cow dung, animal bones, dead leaves, dead insects and vegetable wastes) by t(he action of microbes.
iv) Irrigation : Supply of water to crops at appropriate intervals is called
irrigation. Method of Irrigation:
(a)Tradition methods of Irrigation: Moat, Chain pump, Dheki, Rahat.
(b) Modern methods of Irrigation: Sprinkler system, Drip
(v) Protection from Weeds: Weeding involves removal of unwanted and
uncultivated plants called weeds.
(vi) Harvesting: Harvesting is the cutting of the mature crop manually or by
(vii) Storage Proper storage of grains is necessary to protect them from pests
Harvested food grains normally contain more moisture than
required for storage.
Large scale of storage of grains is done in silos and granaries to
pest like rats and insects.
Farmers store grains in jute bags or metallic bins.
Food is also obtained from animals for which animals are reared.