Paper-3 | Physics Subject Contents
Subject Contents – Physics
I. Measurements, Units and Dimensions: Need of measurement in daily life. Systems of units. Units and dimentions, Significance of accuracy in measurement. Measuring instruments; Types of errors in measurements – mean absolute relative percentage errors; Fundamental and derived physical quantities. Rules for writing units in SI, derived units SI, Multiples and submultiples of SI units; Dimensional formulae and dimensional equations, dimensionless quantities; principle of homogeneity of dimensions. Application of dimensional analysis.
II. Natural Resources – Air and Water: Composition of air, atmospheric pressure, the consequences of air pollution, ways to reduce air pollution. Winds, cyclones, natural calamities and management of their bad consequences, Composition of water, water cycle, change of phase, Latent Heat. Forms of water in atmosphere, boiling, melting, water pollution and hardness of water. How to handle the shortage of drinking water? Methods of increasing ground water levels.
III. Our Universe: Need to develop the Habit of Night sky observation, How to differentiate constellations with zodiac signs, study of solar system, different laws pertaining to the motion of celestial bodies and ways of measuring the distances in space. Principles of launching of satellites and their applications in day to day life.
IV Natural Phenomenon:
i. Light: Nature of light, Theories of light, Fermat principle, Reflection – its laws. Image formation in plane and spherical mirrors.Rules for Ray diagrams and Formula for spherical
mirrors – focal length and sign convention.Application of mirrors. Properties of Light and Laws; Electro Magnetic spectra.
ii. Heat: Heat as energy- sources of heat, Transmission of heat, Expansion of solids, liquids and gases. Temperature (based on thermal equilibrium), Different Scales of Temperaturemeasurement Different type of Thermometers and their construction. Calorimetry, Applications of Specific heat, Latent heat. Anomalous expansion of water and it significance in nature. Combustion, Calorific value, specific heat of gases.
iii. Sound: Sources of sound. Noise and music. Musical instruments. Propagation of sound. Velocity of sound in different media / substances. Characteristics of sound. Structure of human ear – in Auditory aspect. Reflection of sound, echo, Resonance, Sonar and Doppler effect. Simple Harmonic Motion.
V. Mechanics: Application of Simple Machines in daily life situations. Scalars and Vectors. Free Body Diagram. All types of motion. Different types of Forces. Different types of frictions and effects of friction. Newton’s laws of motion. Momentum. Equations of motion (under gravity and freely falling), projectile. Range. Laws of Floatation. Different laws of fluids. Different types of Energies. Conservation of energy, Work and Power. Work energy theorem. Center of mass. Centre of gravity for regular and irregular objects. Stability and
Equilibrium. Universal law of Gravitation. Relation between ‘g’ and ‘G’.Circular motion, Frame of reference, Kepler’s Laws. Elasticity and Hooke’s Law
VI. Magnetism: Types of Magnets, Identification of Magnetic and Non-magnetic substances, magnetic field, Uniform and non uniform magnetic fields. Magnetic induction. Magnetic lines of force. Terrestrial magnetism–Terrestrial magnetic field. Geo magnetism. Uses of Magnetism; Dip, Declination Magnetic pole strength, Magnetic moment. Inverse square law of magnetism. Magnetic properties of materials and their classification. Domine theory.
VII. Electricity & Electro Magnetism:
Electric charge, field, electric intensity, electric potential, potential difference. Simple Electric Circuits and precautionary measures. House hold circuits. Conductors, Non conductors / Insulators, Coulomb’s inverse square law. Primary and secondary Cells. Ohm’s Law – its limitations.Resistances in series and parallel, Emf of a circuit; Specific resistance.Kirchhoff’s laws. Relation between electric potential and Electric energy, electric Power (wattage), House hold and Industrial power saving. Heating effect of electric current, and Joule’s law. Lighting and Working of lightning conductor, Prevention and control of damage due to lightning. Earthing in electrical appliances. Magnetic field due to currents carrying wire, Ampere’s law, circular loop and Solenoid. Magnetic force on moving charged particle and long straight conductors.Fleming’s left hand rule, Electric motor. Electromagnetic induction – Faraday’s law Electromagnetic flux. Lentz law, Generators and Alternating Currents. Inductance – self, mutual inductance and principles of transformer.
VIII. Modern Physics: Discharge of Electricity through gases, Discharge tube phenomena, Cathode rays, Properties of Cathode rays, Anode rays and their properties; X-rays; Atomic models: JJ Thomson, Rutherford and Bohr’s models. Atomic nucleus and its structure. Atomic models: Mass defect; Radio Activity- Discovery, properties of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. Applications of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations, Radioactive transformations, alpha, beta decays, Half life period, Isotopes, Isobars, and Isotones. Radioactive transmutation-artificial radioactivity; radio isotopes and their uses in different fields; radioactive series; Chain and controlled nuclear reactions; Fission and fusion of nuclei – atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb.
IX. Electronics and Communications: Semi conductors – intrinsic and extrinsic; band theory; diode, p-n junction characteristics. Transistor – pnp & npn characteristics and uses. Ziner Diode characteristics. Simple electronic circuits, Logic gates – applications. Importance of ICT Block diagram of
computer and its parts Input devices, process and output devices, applications of computers Communication: components of Communication. Basic terminology used in electronic communication system. Band width of transmission medium, propagation, modulation and demodulation.