Variations: If the values of two quantities depend on each other in such a way that a change in one causes corresponding change in the other, then the two quantities are said to be in variation. (Scroll down to continue …)
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Direct Variation or Direct Proportion:
Two quantities x and y are said to be in direct proportion if they increase (decrease) together in such a manner that the ratio of their corresponding values remains
constant. That is if
=k [k is a positive number, then x and y are said to vary directly.
In such a case if y1, y2 are the values of y corresponding to the values x1, x of x
respectively then = .
If the number of articles purchased increases, the total cost also increases. More than money deposited in a bank, more is the interest earned.
Quantities increasing or decreasing together need not always be in direct proportion, same in the case of inverse proportion.
When two quantities x and y are in direct proportion (or vary directly), they are
stands for ‘is proportion to’.
Inverse Proportion: Two quantities x and y are said to be in inverse proportion if an increase in x causes a proportional decrease in y (and vice-versa) in such a manner that the product of their corresponding values remains constant. That is, if xy
= k, then x and y are said to vary inversely. In this case if y1, y2 are the values of y
corresponding to the values x1, x2 of x respectively then
x1, Y1 = x2, y2 or
When two quantities x and y are in inverse proportion (or vary inversely), they are
written as x
. Example: If the number of workers increases, time taken to finish
the job decreases. Or If the speed will increase the time required to cover a given distance decreases.