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## Full Notes | Magnetic Effects of Electric Current – Electromagnetism

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MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT | ELECTROMAGNETISM | FULL NOTES

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# Magnetic Effects of Electric Current – Electromagnetism

• Electromagnet
• Solenoid
• Electric Motor

Electromagnetic Induction

Electric Effects of Changing Magnetic Fields –

• Electric generators
• Transformer

Magnetic Field Line 3D Video

V-Lab I

V-Lab II

Electricity and magnetism are linked to each other.

Electric current through conducting wire produces a magnetic field known as electromagnetic induction.

Relative motion of a conductor with respect to a magnetic field generates electricity in it.

Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

Accidentally, Oersted discovered that a magnetic field is produced around a current carrying conductor.

Oersted Experiment

Video 1

Hans Christian Oersted, one of the leading scientists of the 19th

century, played a crucial role in understanding electromagnetism.

In 1820 Oersted accidentally discovered that a compass needle got deflected when an electric current passed through a metallic wire placed nearby.

Through this observation Oersted showed that electricity and magnetism were related phenomena.

His research later created technologies such as the radio, television and fibre optics.

The unit of magnetic field strength is named the Oersted in his honour.

Example:

A current through a horizontal power line flows in an east to west direction. What is the direction of the magnetic field at a point directly below it and at a point directly above it?

Solution

The current is in the east-west direction. Applying the right-hand thumb rule, we get that the magnetic field (at any point below or above the wire) turns clockwise in a plane perpendicular to the wire, when viewed from the east end, and anti-clockwise, when viewed from the west end.

Magnetic Field And Magnetic Lies

The iron filings arrange themselves in a pattern  when they are sprinkled around a magnet.

Why do the iron filings arrange in such a pattern?

What does this pattern demonstrate?

The iron filings experience a magnetic force  in its surroundings due to the magnetic field.

The force makes iron filings to arrange in a pattern.

The region surrounding a magnet, in which the force of the magnet can be detected, is said to have a magnetic field.

The lines along which the iron filings align themselves represent magnetic field lines or magnetic field lines.

Are there other ways of obtaining magnetic field lines around a bar magnet?

Yes, we can draw the field lines of a bar magnet using a magnetic compass.

Magnetic Compass

• Magnetic compass is a device used to find the Geographic south and north direction.
• Compass needle gets deflected when brought near a magnet.
• The ends of the compass needle point approximately towards Geographic north and south directions.
• The end pointing towards Geographic north is called the north seeking pole or north pole.
• The other end that points towards south is called south seeking pole or south pole
• Like magnetic poles repel, while unlike magnetic poles attract each other.

Magnetic field

A magnetic field exists in the region surrounding a magnet, in which the force of the magnet can be detected.

The region surrounding a magnet, in which the force of the magnet can be detected, is said to have a magnetic field.

Magnetic field  has both direction and magnitude. Therefore the magnetic field is a vector quantity.

The direction of the magnetic field is taken to be the direction in which the north pole of the compass needle moves inside it.

Therefore it is taken by convention that the field lines emerge from the north pole and merge at the south pole.

Inside the magnet, the direction of field lines is from its south pole to its

north pole.

Thus the magnetic field lines are closed curves.

The relative strength of the magnetic field is shown by the degree of

closeness of the field lines.

The field is stronger, that is, the force acting on the pole of another magnet placed is greater where the field lines are crowded.

No two field-lines are found to cross each other.

If they did, it would mean that at the point of intersection, the compass needle would point towards two directions, which is not possible.

Magnetic Field lines

• A magnetic field line is the path along which a hypothetical free north pole would tend to move.
• Field lines are used to represent a magnetic field.
• The direction of the magnetic field at a point is given by the direction that a north pole placed at that point would take.
• Field lines are shown closer together where the magnetic field is greater.

MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO A CURRENT-CARRYING CONDUCTOR

A conductor carrying an electric current has a magnetic field associated with it.

The pattern of the magnetic field around a conductor due to an electric current flowing through it depends on the shape of the conductor.

MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO A STRAIGHT CURRENT-CARRYING

CONDUCTOR

Video

Take a battery (12 V), a variable resistance (or a rheostat), an ammeter (0–5 A), a plug key, connecting wires and a long straight thick copper wire.

Insert the thick wire through the centre, normal to the plane of a rectangular cardboard.

Take care that the cardboard is fixed and does not slide up or down.

Connect the copper wire vertically between thepoints X and Y, as shown in Fig. 13.6 (a), in series with the battery, a plug and key.

Sprinkle some iron filings uniformly on the cardboard. (You may use a salt sprinkler for this purpose.)

Keep the variable of the rheostat at a fixed position and note the current through the ammeter.

Close the key so that a current flows through the wire. Ensure that the copper wire placed between the points X and Y remains vertically

straight.

Gently tap the cardboard a few times. Observethe pattern of the iron filings. You  would find that the iron filings align themselves showing a pattern of concentric circles around the copper wire.

What do these concentric circles represent?

They represent the magnetic field lines.

How can the direction of the magnetic field be found? Place a compass at a point (say P) over a circle.

Observe the direction of the needle.

The direction of the north pole of the compass needle would give the direction of the field lines produced by the electric current through the straight wire at point P. Show the direction by an arrow.

Does the direction of magnetic field lines get reversed if the direction of current through the straight copper wire is reversed? Check it out.

Finding Direction of MagneticField

Right Hand Thumb Rule Or Right Hand Grip Rule

Imagine that you are holding a current-carrying straight conductor in your right hand such that the thumb points towards the direction of current.

Then your fingers will wrap around the conductor in the direction of the field lines of the magnetic field, as shown in Figure known as the right-hand thumb rule*.

The field lines about the wire consist of a series of concentric circles whose direction is given by the right-hand rule.

Right Hand Thumb Rule

Right Hand Thumb Rule

Right hand thumb rule states that if we hold the conductor in the right hand such that the thumb points in the direction of electric current, then the direction in which the fingers curl gives the direction of the magnetic field

If we point the thumb downwards in the direction of the current, the magnetic field would be represented by the curled fingers as the circles around the conductor.

So, if it is viewed from the above plane these field lines will be clockwise circles, but the direction of the magnetic field at any point on these circular magnetic lines is in the direction of the tangent drawn to the circular magnetic lines at the desired points.

Maxwell’s cork-screw rule:

Maxwell’ cork screw rule

Maxwell’ cork screw rule is also known as maxwell’s right hand thumb ruleIf the head of a cork-Screw is rotated such that the tip of the screw advances in the direction of electric current, then the direction of rotation of the head of the screw represents the direction of the magnetic field around the conductor.

A magnetic field caused by a current-carrying conductor consists of sets of concentric lines of force. The direction of the magnetic field lines depends on the direction of the current passed through the conductor.

Example 13.1

A current through a horizontal power line flows in east to west

direction. What is the direction of magnetic field at a point directly

below it and at a point directly above it?

Solution

The current is in the east-west direction. Applying the right-hand

thumb rule, we get that the magnetic field (at any point below or

above the wire) turns clockwise in a plane perpendicular to the wire,

when viewed from the east end, and anti-clockwise, when viewed

from the west end.

Clock-S Rule

Clock-S rule is a rule which helps us to find the formation of magnetic South Pole due to electromagnetic induction in a current carrying conducting coil.

According to clocks rule if one face of a current carrying conducting coil is placed such that one face of the coil is faced to us and current is moving in the clockwise direction with respect to us then the face of the coil which is faced to us becomes as a magnetic south pole and the other face behaves as the north magnetic pole.

A current carrying conductor in the form of a rectangular loop behaves like a magnet and when suspended in an external magnetic field experiences force.

*SNOW Rule

Video 1

Case 1

The SNOW rule states that if the current is flowing in an electric circuit from South to North direction and a magnetic compass is placed Over the conducting wire, the needle of the compass deflects in the direction of west.

Case 2

The SNOW rule states that if the current is flowing in an electric circuit from North to South direction and a magnetic compass is placed Over the conducting wire, the needle of the compass deflects in the direction of east.

Case 3

The SNOW rule states that if the current is flowing in an electric circuit from South to North direction and a magnetic compass is placed Below the conducting wire, the needle of the compass deflects in the direction of east.

Case 2

The SNOW rule states that if the current is flowing in an electric circuit from North to South direction and a magnetic compass is placed Below the conducting wire, the needle of the compass deflects in the direction of west.

Magnetic Field due to a Current through a

Circular Loop We have so far observed the pattern of the magnetic field lines produced around a current-carrying straight wire.

Suppose this straight wire is bent in the form of a circular loop and a current is passed through it.

What would the magnetic field lines look like?

We know that the magnetic field produced by a current-carrying straight wire depends inversely on the distance from it.

Similarly at every point of a current-carrying circular loop, the concentric circles representing the magnetic field around it would become larger and larger as we move away from the wire (Fig. 13.8). By the time we reach the centre of the circular loop, the arcs of these big circles would appear as straight lines.

Every point on the wire carrying current would give rise to the magnetic field appearing as straight lines at the centre of the loop.

By applying the right hand rule, it is easy to check that every section of the wire contributes to the magnetic field lines in the same direction

within the loop.

We know that the magnetic field produced by a current-carrying

wire at a given point depends directly on the current passing through it.

Therefore, if there is a circular coil having n turns, the field produced is

n times as large as that produced by a single turn.

This is because the current in each circular turn has the same direction, and the field due to each turn then just adds up.

Factors affecting magnetic field of a circular current carrying conductor-

• Magnetic field is directly proportional to the current passing through the conductor.
• Magnetic field is inversely proportional to the distance from the conductor.
• Magnetic field is directly proportional to number of turns in coil.

Solenoid

The solenoid is an electromagnet which is a long cylindrical coil of wire consisting of a large number of turns bound together very tightly.

Note:  The length of the coil should be longer than its diameter. (Or)

Solenoid is a coil of a number of turns of insulated copper wire closely wrapped in the shape of a cylinder.

When a soft iron rod is placed inside the solenoid, it behaves like an electromagnet.

The use of soft iron as core in the solenoid produces the strongest magnetism.

A solenoid consists of an insulated conducting wire wound on a cylindrical tube made of plastic or cardboard.

Magnetic Field due to a Current in a Solenoid

The magnetic field of a solenoid carrying a current is similar to that of a bar magnet.

Compare the pattern of the field with the magnetic field around a bar magnet.

Do they look similar?

Yes, they are similar.

In fact, one end of the solenoid behaves as a magnetic north pole, while the other behaves as the south pole.

The field lines inside the solenoid are in the form of parallel straight lines.

This indicates that the magnetic field is the same at all points inside the solenoid.

That is, the field is uniform inside the solenoid.

These appear to be similar to that of a bar magnet.

One end of the solenoid behaves like the North Pole and the other end behaves like the South Pole.

Magnetic field lines inside the solenoid are in the form of parallel straight lines.

This means that the field is the same at all the points inside the solenoid.

Electromagnet

An electromagnet consists of a core of soft iron wrapped around with a coil of insulated copper wire.

An electromagnet is a magnet made up of a coil of insulated wire wrapped around a soft iron core that is magnetised only when current flows through the wire.

A strong magnetic field produced inside a solenoid can be used to magnetise a piece of magnetic material, like soft iron, when placed inside the coil.

It is a temporary magnet that can be easily demagnetized.

In this type of magnet, polarity can be reversed and strength can be varied. They are very strong magnets.

Magnetic Field of An electromagnet

Force on A current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field

Placing a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field experiences a force.

Finding direction of force on a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field Using Fleming’s left-hand rule

If the direction of the magnetic field and that of the current are mutually perpendicular to each other, then the force acting on the conductor will be perpendicular to both and will be given by Fleming’s left-hand rule.

Flemings Left Hand RuleStretch the thumb, forefinger and middle finger of the left hand such that they are mutually perpendicular. If the forefinger is in the direction of the magnetic field, Central finger in the direction of current, then the thumb will point in the direction of motion or force.

Rules & Laws of Electromagnetism

Clock-S Rule

Clock-S rule is a rule which helps us to find the formation of magnetic South Pole due to electromagnetic induction in a current carrying conducting coil.

According to clocks rule if one face of a current carrying conducting coil is placed such that one face of the coil is faced to us and current is moving in the clockwise direction with respect to us then the face of the coil which is faced to us becomes as a magnetic south pole and the other face behaves as the north magnetic pole.

A current carrying conductor in the form of a rectangular loop behaves like a magnet and when suspended in an external magnetic field experiences force.

SNOW Rule

Video 1

Case 1

The SNOW rule states that if the current is flowing in an electric circuit from South to North direction and a magnetic compass is placed Over the conducting wire, the needle of the compass deflects in the direction of west.

Case 2

The SNOW rule states that if the current is flowing in an electric circuit from North to South direction and a magnetic compass is placed Over the conducting wire, the needle of the compass deflects in the direction of east.

Case 3

The SNOW rule states that if the current is flowing in an electric circuit from South to North direction and a magnetic compass is placed Below the conducting wire, the needle of the compass deflects in the direction of east.

Case 2

The SNOW rule states that if the current is flowing in an electric circuit from North to South direction and a magnetic compass is placed Below the conducting wire, the needle of the compass deflects in the direction of west.

Maxwell’s cork-screw rule:

Video 1

Maxwell’ cork screw rule is also known as maxwell’s right hand thumb ruleIf the head of a cork-Screw is rotated such that the tip of the screw advances in the direction of electric current, then the direction of rotation of the head of the screw represents the direction of the magnetic field around the conductor.

A magnetic field caused by a current-carrying conductor consists of sets of concentric lines of force. The direction of the magnetic field lines depends on the direction of the current passed through the conductor.

Ampere Right Hand Thumb Rule

Right hand thumb rule states that if we hold the conductor in the right hand such that the thumb points in the direction of electric current, then the direction in which the fingers curl gives the direction of the magnetic field

If we point the thumb downwards in the direction of the current, the magnetic field would be represented by the curled fingers as the circles around the conductor.

So, if it is viewed from the above plane this field lines will be clockwise circles, but the direction of the magnetic field at any point on this circular magnetic lines is in the direction of the tangent drawn to the circular magnetic lines at the desired points.

Example 13.1

A current through a horizontal power line flows in east to west

direction. What is the direction of magnetic field at a point directly

below it and at a point directly above it?

Solution

The current is in the east-west direction. Applying the right-hand

thumb rule, we get that the magnetic field (at any point below or

above the wire) turns clockwise in a plane perpendicular to the wire,

when viewed from the east end, and anti-clockwise, when viewed

from the west end.

Fleming’s Right Hand rule (Working Principle of Transformer and generator )

Video 1 Fleming’s right hand rule gives the direction of the induced current in a conductor when it is moved in a magnetic field.

Transformers are based on this principle, which consist of a primary coil and a secondary coil.

The number of turns in the coils is selected based on the type of the transformer to be made, namely, step-up or step-down.

Magnetic Field Due to An Electric Conducting Coil (Motor Working Basics)

Video 1

### Electric Motor

Electric Motor

An electric motor is a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

Fleming’s left-hand rule is the basis of an electric motor.

A rotating device that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy.

Working Principle: The Working Principle of Electric motor is Fleming’s Left Hand Rule.

Construction of Electric Motor: It consists of a rectangular coil ABCD made up of insulated copper wire.

The coil is placed perpendicular to the magnetic field.

There are two conducting brushes X and Y.

Current in coil ABCD enters through a source battery through conducting brush X and flows back to the battery through brush Y.

The split ring acts as a commutator.

It reverses the direction of flow of current in a commutator.

They are used in electromagnets, as soft iron core on which coil is wound.

Armature enhances the power of the motor.

Electric Motor V-Lab

Working Principle

Working Principle of electric motors is Fleming’s left hand rule.

The direction of the force is given by Fleming’s left hand rule. This gives the basis for an electric motor.

An electric motor essentially consists of a coil as an armature, a split ring commutator for changing the direction of the current in the coil.

There are two brushes linked with the split rings that maintain the contact with the armature for the current flow.

Electric motor converts electrical energy to mechanical energy.

A number of such loops form a coil and the coil is termed solenoid.

If there is a soft iron core in the solenoid, it behaves like a magnet as long as there is current through the coil. Thus it is an electromagnet.

When an electric current passes through a conductor, a magnetic field is created around the conductor. This phenomenon is known as the magnetic effect of electricity.

A magnetic field is the extent of space surrounding a magnet where the magnet’s effect can be felt.

Magnetic field lines represent the lines of action of the force acting on a unit North Pole placed in a magnetic field.

Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic Induction – Electric Effects of Changing Magnetic Field

The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is the production of induced current in a coil placed in a region where the magnetic field changes with time.

The magnetic field may change due to a relative motion between the coil and a magnet placed near to the coil.

If the coil is placed near to a current-carrying conductor, the

the magnetic field may change either due to a change in the current through the conductor or due to the relative motion between the coil and conductor.

The direction of the induced current is given by the Fleming’s right-hand rule.

Fleming’s Right Hand Rule

A generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. It works on the basis of electromagnetic induction.

Electromagnetic Induction is the electric effects of relative motion between magnetic field and electric conductor.

When we place a conductor in a changing magnetic field, some current is induced in it. This current is known as Induced Current and the phenomenon is known as Electromagnetic Induction.

The working principle of electric generators and Transformers is Fleming’s right hand rule.

V-Lab

Video 1

Faraday’s experiment proved that the strength of the induced current depends on several factors like the strength of the magnet, the speed of motion of the magnet, its orientation, the number of turns in the coil and the diameter of the coil. The induced current can be detected by a galvanometer.

Electric Generator

V-Lab

An electric device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy is called an electric generator.

Working Principle: Fleming Right Hand Rule

Fleming Right Hand Rule Hold the forefinger, middle finger and thumb of your right hand at right angles to each other. Forefinger points towards the direction of the magnetic field, thumb points in the direction of motion of conductor and middle finger shows direction of induced current.

Electric Energy is a device used to convert mechanical energy into an alternating form of electrical energy. It consists of insulated copper wire, magnetic poles, split rings, axle, brushes and galvanometer.

The axle is rotated so that it moves clockwise, that is AB moves up and CD moves down. After half rotation, CD starts to move up and AB moves down. After every half rotation current changes its direction, this is called AC current.

Electric generators work on the same principle. They have an armature which is free to rotate in a magnetic field.

Its terminals are connected to two slip rings, which are further connected to two brushes and they are connected across a load resistance through which the generated electricity can be trapped.

The rotation of the armature in the magnetic field changes the magnetic flux in the coil of the armature and an electric current is induced.

As the direction of the induced current changes for every half rotation, it is called alternating current.

The current at the power plants is distributed through transmission lines at a high voltage and hence the lines are referred to as high tension power lines.

At the substations these are stepped down to a lower voltage and supplied to houses at a low voltage.

A domestic electric circuit essentially contains mains, a fuse, live or line, neutral and earth wires.

From the poles supply cables bring the current to the mains.

Within the house, all the equipment is connected in parallel.

Electromagnetic induction (EMI) is the process of generating an electromotive force by moving a conductor through a magnetic field.

The electromotive force generated due to electromagnetic induction is called induced emf. The current due to induced emf is called induced current.

Alternating current (AC) is the current induced by an AC generator. AC current changes direction periodically. Direct current (DC) always flows in one direction, but its voltage may increase or decrease.

An electric motor is different from an electric generator. A generator converts mechanical energy (Kinetic energy) into electrical energy while an electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy (Kinetic energy).

AC Generator:

Principle: It works on the principle that when a coil rotates in a uniform magnetic field, a current is induced in the coil. The direction of induced current is determined by Fleming’s right hand rule.

Construction: An ac generator consists of the following components as shown in figure.

(i) Armature coil: It consists of a large number of turns of a rectangular coil ABCD made of copper wire wound over a soft iron laminated core.

(ii) Strong field magnets: Two concave poles (NS) of permanent magnets between which the armature coil is rotated.

(iii) Slip-rings: The two ends of the coil are welded to two different circular metallic rings R, and R,. These rings are called the slip-rings. The function of the slip-rings is to ensure that the ion of current flowing through the coil after each half rotation.

A schematic diagram of common domestic circuit is as shown below

(iv) Brushes : Two carbon brushes B, and B2 make a contact with the slip-rings R, and R2

An electric generator is as shown in fig. 7.7.

Domestic Electric Circuit

HouseHold Electric Circuits

In our houses we receive AC electric power of 220 V with a frequency of 50 Hz. One of the wires in this supply is with red insulation, called live wire.

The other one is of black insulation, which is a neutral wire. The potential difference between the two is 220 V.

The third is the earth wire that has green insulation and this is connected

to a metallic body deep inside earth. It is used as a safety measure to ensure that any leakage of current to a metallic body does not give any severe shock to a user.

Fuse is the most important safety device, used for protecting the circuits due to short-circuiting or overloading of the circuits.

Electrical components and wires fitted in a household to supply electricity to various appliances form a domestic electric circuit.

The old colour convention of the three wires used in household electrical circuits was Red, called live wire, Black, called neutral wire and Green, called earth wire. Now, this colour convention has changed.

The new colour convention is Brown, called live wire, Light blue, called neutral wire and Green or Yellow, called earth wire.

In our houses, we receive AC electric power of 220 V with a frequency of 50 Hz. One of the wires in this supply is with red insulation, called live wire

The other one is of black insulation, which is a neutral wire. The potential difference between the two is 220 V.

The third is the earth wire that has green insulation and this is connected to a metallic body deep inside earth.

It is used as a safety measure to ensure that any leakage of current to a metallic body does not give any severe shock to a user.

Earthing

Earthing of an electrical appliance is very important.

Suppose, a conductor is exposed to the appliance due to bad insulation.

If a person touches such an appliance, he will receive a severe shock.

If the metal casing of the appliance is connected to the earth with the help of a conductor, the metal casing will be then at the same potential as the earth i.e., zero volt.

If there is a leakage of current, the current will safely flow to the earth.

The earth connection can also save the appliance from the damage.

Fuse

Fuse is the most important safety device, used for protecting the circuits due to short-circuiting or overloading of the circuits.

It is a safety device to limit the current in an electric circuit.

It prevents the electric appliances from damage.

It is made up of material which has high resistivity and low melting point.

Exam Revision

Magnetic Compass

A compass needle is a small magnet. Its one end, which points towards north, is called a north pole, and the other end, which points towards south, is called a south pole.

Magnetic Field

A magnetic field exists in the region surrounding a magnet, in which the force of the magnet can be detected.

Field lines

Field lines are used to represent a magnetic field. A field line is the path along which a hypothetical free north pole would tend to move. The direction of the magnetic field at a point is given by the direction that a north pole placed at that point would take. Field lines are shown closer together where the magnetic field is greater.

Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

A metallic wire carrying an electric current has a magnetic field associated with it.

The field lines about the wire consist of a series of concentric circles whose direction is given by the right-hand rule.

Right Hand Rule

Magnetic Field Around a Conductor Due to An Electric Current

The pattern of the magnetic field around a conductor due to an electric current flowing through it depends on the shape of the conductor.

Magnetic Field of a solenoid

The magnetic field of a solenoid carrying a current is similar to that of a bar magnet.

Magnetic Field of An electromagnet

An electromagnet consists of a core of soft iron wrapped around with a coil of insulated copper wire.

Force on A current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field

O placing a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field experiences a force.

Direction of Force on A current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field Using Fleming’s left-hand rule

If the direction of the magnetic field and that of the current are mutually perpendicular to each other, then the force acting on the conductor will be perpendicular to both and will be given by Fleming’s left-hand rule.

Electric Motor

An electric motor is a device that converts electric energy into mechanical energy.

Fleming’s left-hand rule is the basis of an electric motor.

Electromagnetic Induction – Electric Effects of Changing Magnetic Field

The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is the production of induced current in a coil placed in a region where the magnetic field changes with time.

The magnetic field may change due to a relative motion between the coil and a magnet placed near to the coil.

If the coil is placed near to a current-carrying conductor, the

magnetic field may change either due to a change in the current through the conductor or due to the relative motion between the coil and conductor.

The direction of the induced current is given by the Fleming’s right-hand rule.

Fleming’s Right Hand Rule

A generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. It works on the basis of electromagnetic induction.

HouseHold Electric Circuits

In our houses we receive AC electric power of 220 V with a frequency of 50 Hz. One of the wires in this supply is with red insulation, called live wire.

The other one is of black insulation, which is a neutral wire. The potential difference between the two is 220 V.

The third is the earth wire that has green insulation and this is connected

to a metallic body deep inside earth. It is used as a safety measure to ensure that any leakage of current to a metallic body does not give any severe shock to a user.

Fuse is the most important safety device, used for protecting the circuits due to short-circuiting or overloading of the circuits.

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