Anything (Physical Material not emotions, feelings etc.) which has mass and volume (occupy space) is called matter.
We feel the presence of matter by one or more of our five sense organs.
Matter is made up of particles. (Scroll down to ontinue …)
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Particles are very small in size. Therefore we cannot see particles with our naked eye.
Characteristics of the particles of matter:
(1) All matter (elements or compounds) consists of very small particles which can exist independently and are called particles.
(ii) The particles of matter are in a state of continuous motion and possess kinetic energy.
(iii) There are intermolecular spaces in between the particles (molecules) of matter.
(iv) The particles (molecules) of matter attract each other with a force called intermolecular force.
Intermolecular force is maximum in solids and least in the gases.
These material particles can be touched, moved by changing temperature or attracted by decreasing or increasing forces of attraction or repulsion.
2. States of Matter
Matter exists in three different physical states namely solid, liquid and gas.
One substance such as water can exist in all the three states such as, ice in solid state, water in liquid state and steam or vapours in gaseous state.
The state of matter depends on temperature, forces of attraction between their constituent particles etc.
3. Interconversion of Matter
All these three different states of matter are interconvertible depending upon temperature and pressure.
The state of matter can be changed by changing temperature or pressure.
Due to change in temperature and pressure there will be a change in inter-particle space as well as force between them, resulting in change in physical state.
Applying pressure and reducing temperature can liquefy gases.
Solid CO₂ gets converted directly to a gaseous state on decrease of pressure to 1 atmosphere without changing into a liquid state. Due to this fact solid CO₂ is also known as DRY ICE.
4. Plasma: It is the fourth state of matter consisting of super energetic and super excited particles. These particles are in the form of ionised gases.
The plasma in stars is formed due to high temperature.
Glowing plasma formed in fluorescent tubes and neon sign bulbs.
These devices contain inert gases which get ionised due to the passage of electric current. The colour of the glowing plasma depends upon the nature of the gas.
5. Sublimation: The process in which a solid state directly changes into a gaseous state on heating or vice-versa on cooling.
6. Melting or Fusion: The process of changing a solid into a liquid state by absorbing heat at a constant temperature is known as Melting or Fusion.
7. Freezing or Solidification: The process of changing a liquid into solid state by losing heat at a constant temperature is known as Freezing or Solidification.
8. Condensation: The process of changing a gas into a liquid state by giving out heat at constant temperature is known as Condensation .
Boiling or Vaporisation : The process of changing a liquid into a gaseous state by absorbing heat at constant temperature is known as Boiling or Vaporisation .
Boiling is a bulk phenomenon. Particles from the bulk (whole) of the liquid change into a vapour state.
Evaporation: The phenomenon of changing the physical state from liquid to vapour, at any temperature is called evaporation.
Evaporation is a surface phenomenon. Particles from the surface gain required energy to overcome the forces of attraction present in the liquid and change into the vapour state.
The rate of evaporation depends upon the surface area exposed to the atmosphere, the temperature, the humidity and the wind speed.
Evaporation causes cooling.
Evaporation takes place at all temperatures, below the boiling point of a liquid
Factors affecting evaporation:
• Rate of evaporation increases with increase in surface area.
• Rate of evaporation increases with increase in temperature.
• Rate of evaporation increases with decrease in Humidity.
• Rate of evaporation increases with increase in wind speed.
Latent heat of boiling or Latent heat of Vaporisation: Latent heat of boiling or Latent heat of Vaporisationis the heat energy required to change 1 kg of a liquid to gas at atmospheric pressure at its boiling point.
Kelvin is the SI unit of temperature.
0°C = 273.16 K.
For convenience, we take 0°C = 273 K after rounding off the decimal.
To change a temperature on the Kelvin scale to the Celsius scale you have to subtract 273 from the given temperature, and to convert a temperature on the Celsius scale to the Kelvin scale you have to add 273 to the given temperature.
Conversion Formula: t°C = (t+273) K
Boiling point or Vaporisation point: Boiling point or Vaporisation point is the fixed temperature at which a liquid converts into a gaseous state at atmospheric pressure.
Melting point or Fusion point: Melting point or Fusion point is the temperature at which a solid starts converting into a liquid state at atmospheric pressure.
Evaporation Causes cooling: During evaporation the particles at the surface of the liquid gain energy from the surroundings and change into vapour.. Therefore Evaporation Causes cooling effect.
Sponge can be compressed although it is solid: Sponge contains minute holes in which air is trapped.So when it is pressed, the air gets expelled and the sponge gets compressed. Also,the material of the sponge is not rigid.
Temperature does not change during change of state: The temperature remains constant at its melting and boiling points (during change of state) until all the substance melts or boils.
Because the heat supplied is continuously used up in changing the state of the substance by overcoming the force of attraction between the particles.
There is no increase in the kinetic energy of the particles and thus, temperature does not change.
This heat energy absorbed without showing any rise in temperature is given the name latent heat of fusion/latent heat of vaporisation.
Effect of pressure on physical state of a substance:
If pressure is applied, melting point decreases and boiling point increases
When pressure is increased, the particles come closer and the force of attraction increases between them and this results in a change of state.
Example: When high pressure is applied to a gas by reducing its temperature, the particles of gas come close and get converted to a liquid. This is also known as liquefaction.
The amount of heat energy required in changing a 1 kg of solid into liquid at atmospheric pressure and its melting point is known as the latent heat of fusion.
[ Lice = 80 cal/g = 3.34 × 105 J/kg].
• The amount of heat which is required to convert 1 kg of the liquid (at its boiling point) to vapours of gas without any change in temperature is known as latent heat of vaporisation.
[Lwater =540 cal/g= 22.5 × 105 J/kg].
• The amount of heat absorbed or liberated , Q = mL.
• The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius.
• Q = m.s. t, where m = mass of the body, s = specific heat of the body and t is temperature difference and m.s is called thermal capacity.
• Change of liquid into vapours at any temperature below the boiling point.
Takes the latent heat from the body. Thus, the body cools when evaporation takes place.
(1) Evaporation is a slow process.
(ii) Evaporation takes place at the surface mass of the liquid.
(iii) Evaporation takes place at all temperatures.
(iv) The substance becomes cool due to evapora- tion process.
(v) Heat is absorbed from the surroundings due to Evaporation. Absorption of heat from the surroundings causes cooling effect.
(1) Boiling is a rapid process.
(ii) Boiling takes place throughout the mass of a liquid.
(iii) Boiling takes place at a definite temperature called the boil- ing point.
(iv) The substance remains hot during the boiling process.
(v) Heat is required from an external source such as a burner for boiling to take place.
Scales of temperature
• Three scales are commonly used for measuring temperature, namely, the Celsius scale, the Fahrenheit scale and the Kelvin scale.
• The relation between the Celsius and the Kelvin scale can be expressed as:
C + 273 = K
• The relation between the Celsius and the Fahrenheit scale can be expressed as follows.
Inter particle space
Larger than solid butlesser than gas
Inter particle force
Weaker than solidbut stronger than gas
Very hard and rigid
Less than solid
11.8 NATURAL PHENOMENA AND CONSEQUENCES OF HIGH SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF WATER
Some consequences of high specific heat capacity of water are given below.
(i) The climate near the seashore is moderate :
The specific heat capacity of water is very high (= 1000 cal kg-1 °C-1 or 4200 J kg-1 K-¹). It is about five times as high as that of sand. Hence the heat energy required for the same rise in temperature by a certain mass of water will be nearly five times that required by the same mass of sand.
Similarly, a certain mass of water will give out nearly five times more heat energy than that given by sand of the same mass for the same fall in temperature.
As such, sand (or earth) gets heated or cooled more rapidly as compared to water under similar conditions.
Thus, a large difference in temperature is developed between the land and the sea due to which land and sea breezes are formed”. These breezes make the climate near the seashore moderate.
(ii) Hot water bottles are used for fomentation: The reason is that water does not cool quickly due to its large specific heat capacity, so a hot water bottle provides heat energy for fomentation for a long time.
(iii) Water is used as an effective coolant: By allowing water to flow in pipes around the heated parts of a machine, heat energy from such parts is removed (e.g. radiators in car and generator are filled with water). Water in pipes extracts more heat from surroundings without much rise in its temperature because of its large specific heat capacity.
(iv) In cold countries, water is used as a heat reservoir for wine and juice bottles to avoid their freezing: The reason is that water due to its high specific heat capacity can impart a large amount of heat before reaching up to the freezing temperature. Hence bottles kept in water remain warm and they do not freeze even when the surrounding temperature falls considerably.
(v) Farmers fill their fields with water to protect the crops from frost: In the absence of water, if on a cold winter night, the atmospheric temperature falls below 0°C, the water in the fine capillaries of plants will freeze, so the veins will burst due to the increase in volume of water on freezing. As a result, plants will die and the crop will be destroyed. In order to save crop on such cold nights, farmers fill their fields with water because water has a high specific heat capacity, so it does not allow the temperature in the surrounding area of plants to fall up to 0°C.
(vi) All plants and animals have a high content of water in their bodies: All plants and animals have nearly 80% to 90% of water in their bodies so it helps in maintaining the body temperature nearly same in all seasons due to high specific heat capacity of water.
SOME EXAMPLES OF HIGH AND LOW THERMAL CAPACITY
(1) The base of a cooking pan is made thick : By making the base of the cooking pan thick, its thermal capacity becomes large and it imparts sufficient heat energy at a low temperature to the food for its proper cooking. Further it keeps the food warm for a long time, after cooking.
(2) The base of an electric iron is made thick and heavy: By doing so, the thermal capacity of the base becomes large and it remains hot for a long duration even after switching off the current.
(3) The vessel used for measurement of heat (i.e., calorimeter) is made of thin sheet of copper:
The reason is that the specific heat capacity of copper is low and by making the vessel thin, its thermal capacity becomes low so that it takes a negligible amount of heat from its contents to attain the temperature of the contents.