## Pre-Requisires

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**Speed Notes**

**Notes For Quick Recap**

## Cuboid

**What is a cuboid?**

- A cuboid is a three-dimensional geometric shape that resembles a rectangular box or a rectangular prism. A cuboid has 3 Pairs of opposite, congruent and parallel rectangular faces, 12 edges, and 8 vertices.
**Note 1:**All squares are rectangles.**Note 2:**Cuboid may have one, or Three equal pairs of squares. (Square is a special type of Rectangle.**Note 3:**If All three pairs of faces of a cuboid are squares then it it becomes a Cube.**Note 4:**A cube is a special case of cuboid.

**Parts And Their Alignment Of A Cuboid**

**Faces**

The **flat surfaces **of a cuboid are known as its **faces**.

A cuboid has six faces, and each face is a rectangle.

These faces are arranged such that three pairs of opposite faces are parallel to each other.

The adjacent faces are perpendicular to each other (i.e., the angle between any two touching faces of a cube is right angle, 90°.

**Note 1:**All squares are rectangles.**Note 2:**Rectangle may have one or two pairs of squares.**Note 3:**If All three pairs of faces of a rectangle are squares then it it becomes a Cube.**Note 4:**A cube is a special case of cuboid.

**Edges**

An **edge** is a **line segment** where the two surfaces of a cuboid meet.

There are **12 edges** in a cuboid, where three edges meet at each vertex.

All edges form right angles with the adjacent edges and faces.

**Vertices**

**A vertex is a point** where the three edges meet. Vertices is the plural of vertex.

Cuboid has eight vertices.

**Diagonals**

Diagonal of a cuboid is a line segment that joins two opposite vertices.

The cuboid has four space diagonals.

Length of the diagonal of cuboid = √(length^{2} + breadth^{2 }+ height^{2}) units.

**Symmetry **

Cuboids exhibit high **symmetry**.

They have **rotational symmetry** of order 4, meaning that you can rotate them by 90 degrees about their centre and they will look the same.

**Features of a Cub**oid

It is a three-dimensional, Rectangular figure.

It has 6 faces, 12 edges, and 8 vertices.

All 6 faces are rectangles.

Each vertex meets three faces and three edges.

The edges run parallel to those parallel to it.

All angles of a cuboid are right angles.

**Mensuration of Cuboid**

**Surface Area of a Cuboid**

The total surface area of a cuboid is defined as the **area of its surface** (Appearing face).

**The Lateral Surface Area of a Cube.**

Imagine yourself sitting in a cuboid shaped room. You can then see the four walls around you. This denotes the lateral surface area of that room.

That is, the lateral surface area of a cuboid shaped room is the area of its four walls, excluding the ceiling and the floor.

The lateral surface area of the cuboid is the sum of areas of its square faces, excluding the area of the top and the bottom face.

So the lateral surface area of a cube = sum of areas of 4 faces = (Length ✕ Height) + (Length ✕ Height) + (Length ✕ Height) + (Breadth ✕ Height) + (Breadth✕ Height)

**Derivation of Total Surface Area of a Cuboid**

Since the total surface area of a cuboid (TSA) is the area of its surface.

Total surface area of a cuboid = Lateral Surface Area + Area Of Bottom Surface + Area Of Top Surface

Total surface area of a cuboid = Area Of Front Surface + Area Of Back Surface + Area Of Left Srface + Area Of Right Surface + Area Of Bottom Surface + Area Of Top Surface

Total surface area of a cuboid = Lateral Surface Area 2[Area Of Bottom Surface]

Since Area Of Top Surface = + Area Of Bottom Surface We get, Total surface area of a cuboid = Lateral Surface Area + 2[Area Of Top Surface]

TSA = (Length ✕ Height) + (Length ✕ Height) + (Length ✕ Height) + (Breadth ✕ Height) + (Breadth✕ Height) + (Length ✕ Breadth) + (Length ✕ Breadth)

**TSA **= 2(Length ✕ Height) + 2(Breadth ✕ Height) + 2(Length ✕ Breadth)

**TSA **= 2[(Length ✕ Height) + (Breadth ✕ Height) + (Length ✕ Breadth)]

## The Volume of a Cube

**Volume**

The volume of a three-dimensional object can be defined as the **space required** for it.

Similarly, Volume of a cuboid is defined as the space** required** for the cuboid or the Space occupied by the cuboid.

The volume of a cuboid can be calculated using the formula, V = lbh, where,

l = length, b = breadth or width, h = height

This formula shows that the volume of a cuboid is directly proportional to its length, breadth and height.

The volume is calculated by multiplying the object’s length, breadth, and height.

Hence the volume of the cube = lbh = lenth ✕ breadth ✕ height

**Cuboids in Our Daily Life**

- Cuboids are commonly used in everyday objects, such as boxes, books, and building blocks.
- They are used in architectural and engineering designs for modeling rooms, buildings, and structures.
- In mathematics and geometry, cuboids serve as fundamental examples for teaching and understanding concepts related to three-dimensional shapes.

**Similar Shapes:**

- A cube is a special type of cuboid where all sides are equal in length, making it a regular hexahedron.

**Real-world Examples:**

- A shoebox is an example of a cuboid.
- Most refrigerators, ovens, and TV screens have cuboidal shapes.
- Buildings and houses often have cuboidal rooms.

**Fun Fact:**

- Cuboids are among the simplest and most familiar three-dimensional shapes, making them a fundamental concept in geometry.

Remember that these notes provide an overview of cuboids, and there are more advanced topics and applications related to this shape in various fields of study.

**What is a cube?**

A cube is a three-dimensional regular polyhedron characterised by its 6 Identical (Congruent) Squares in which 3 Pairs of them parallel.

**Parts And Their Alignment Of In A Cube**

**Faces**

The **flat surfaces **of a cube are known as its faces.

A cube has six faces, and each face is a perfect square. These faces are arranged such that three pairs of faces are parallel to each other.

The adjacent faces are perpendicular to each other (the angle between any two touching faces of a cube is right angle, 90°.

All the edges have the same length.

A cube also has 8 vertices and 12 edges.

**Edges**

An edge is a line segment where the two surfaces of a cube meet.

There are twelve edges in a cube, where three edges meet at each vertex.

All edges have equal length and form right angles with the adjacent edges and faces.

**Vertices**

A vertex is a point where the three edges meet. Vertices is the plural of vertex.

Cube has eight vertices.

**Diagonals**

The cube has four space diagonals that connect opposite vertices, each of which has a length of √3 times the length of an edge.

**Symmetry **

Cubes exhibit high **symmetry**.

They have **rotational symmetry** of order 4, meaning that you can rotate them by 90 degrees about their centre and they will look the same.

**Features of a Cube **

It is a three-dimensional, square-shaped figure.

It has 6 faces, 12 edges, and 8 vertices.

All 6 faces are squares with equal area.

All sides have the same length.

Each vertex meets three faces and three edges.

The edges run parallel to those parallel to it.

All angles of a cube are right angles.

**Mensuration of Cube**

**Surface Area of a Cube**

The total surface area of a cube is defined as the **area of its outer surface**.

**Derivation of Total Surface Area of a Cube**

Since the total surface area of a cube is the area of its outer surface.

total surface area of a cube = 6 ✕ area of one face.

We know that the cube has six square faces and each of the square faces is of the same size, the total surface area of a cube = 6 ✕ area of one face.

Let the length of each edge is “s”.

Area of one square face = length of edge ✕ length of edge

Area of one square face == s ✕ s = s²

Therefore, the **total surface area of the cube = 6s²**

The total surface area of the cube will be equal to the sum of all six faces of the cube.

**The Lateral Surface Area of a Cube.**

Imagine yourself sitting in a cube shaped room. You can then see the four walls around you. This denotes the lateral surface area of that room.

That is, the lateral surface area of a cube shaped room is the area of its four walls, excluding the ceiling and the floor.

The lateral surface area of the cube is the sum of areas of its square faces, excluding the area of the top and the bottom face.

So the lateral surface area of a cube = sum of areas of 4 faces = 4a²

The Volume of a Cube

**Volume**

The volume of a three-dimensional object can be defined as the **space required** for it.

Similarly, Volume of a cube is defined as the space** required** for the cube or the Space occupied by the cube.

The volume of a cube can be calculated using the formula V = s^{3}, where “s” represents the length of one side of the cube.

This formula shows that the volume of a cube is directly proportional to the cube of its side length.

The volume is calculated by multiplying the object’s length, breadth, and height. In the case of a cube shape, the length, width, and height are all of the same length. Let us refer to it as “s”.

Hence the volume of the cube is s ✕ s ✕ s = s³

**Cubes in Our Daily Life**

We encounter many cubes in our daily life such as Ice cubes, sugar cubes, dice and the building blocks used in games.

Cubes play a fundamental role in the study of geometry and serve as a basis for understanding three-dimensional space and concepts such as volume and surface area.

Also, Cubes have many applications in mathematics, engineering, architecture and art etc.

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Cylinder is an important topic in Mathematics. It is a three-dimensional solid shape that has two parallel circular bases connected by a curved surface.

In this post, we will explore the properties of a cylinder and how to calculate its volume and surface area.

Let’s start with the basic definition of a right circular cylinder.

A cylinder is a solid shape that has two parallel circular bases of equal size and shape.

The curved surface that connects the two bases is called the **lateral surface**.

The **axis of the cylinder** is a line passing through the center of both bases.

## Types Of Cylinders

(i). **Solid Cylinder**

(ii). **Hollow Cylinder**

## Area Of A Solid Cylinder

** Total Surface Area of Right Circular Cylinder = Curved Surface Area + Cicular Base Area + Circular Top Surface Area**.

Since the Cicular Base Area And The Circular Top Surface Area of a cylinder are equal

**Total Surface Area of Right Circular Cylinder = Curved Surface Area + 2(Cicular Top Surface Area)**

**Or**

**Total Surface Area of Right Circular Cylinder = Curved Surface Area + 2(Cicular Base Surface Area)**

Therefore the formula to calculate the surface area of a cylinder is expressed as the following:

$$SA = 2\pi r h + 2\pi r^2$$

where SA is the surface area, r is the radius of the base, and h is the height of the cylinder.

Here, Curved Surface Area, $$CSA = 2\pi r h$$ and

**Cicular Base Area = Top Surface Area = **$$\pi r^2$$

## Volume Of A Solid Cylinder

The formula to calculate the volume of a cylinder is given by:

$$V = \pi r^2 h$$

where V is the volume, r is the radius of the base, and h is the height of the cylinder.

Now let’s take an example to understand how to use these formulas. Suppose we have a cylinder with a radius of 4 cm and a height of 10 cm. To calculate its volume, we can use the formula:

$$V = \pi (4)^2 (10) = 160\pi$$

Therefore, the volume of the cylinder is 160π cubic cm.

To calculate its surface area, we can use the formula:

$$SA = 2\pi (4) (10) + 2\pi (4)^2 = 120\pi$$

Therefore, the surface area of the cylinder is 120π square cm.

In conclusion, understanding the properties of a cylinder and how to calculate its volume and surface area is important in CBSE Class 10 Mathematics. By using the formulas mentioned above, you can easily solve problems related to cylinders.

## Hollow Cylinder

A hollow cylinder is a three-dimensional object with a circular base and a cylindrical shape. It is also known as a **cylindrical shell**. The cylinder has two circular faces and a curved surface. The thickness of the cylinder is uniform and it is hollow from inside.

## Volume Of A Hollow Cylinder

The volume of a hollow cylinder can be calculated using the formula V = πh(R^{2}-r^{2}), where h is the height of the cylinder, R is the radius of the outer circle, and r is the radius of the inner circle.

## Surface Area Of A Hollow Cylinder

The surface area of a hollow cylinder can be calculated using the formula A = 2πh(R+r), where h is the height of the cylinder, R is the radius of the outer circle, and r is the radius of the inner circle.

Hollow cylinders are used in various applications such as pipes, drums, and containers. They are also used in engineering structures such as bridges and towers.

In conclusion, a hollow cylinder is a useful shape in various fields and can be easily calculated using mathematical equations.

# Cone

A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that has a circular base and a single vertex. It can be visualized as a pyramid with a circular base. In this note, we will cover the basic concepts and formulas related to cones.

## Surface Area of a Cone

The surface area of a cone is the sum of the areas of its base and lateral surface. The formula to calculate the surface area of a cone is:

$$A = \pi r (r + l)$$

Where:

- ( A ) is the surface area of the cone
- $$\pi = 3.14159$$
- ( r ) is the radius of the base of the cone
- ( l ) is the slant height of the cone

## Volume of a Cone

The volume of a cone is the amount of space enclosed by it. The formula to calculate the volume of a cone is:

$$V = \frac{1}{3} \pi r^2 h$$

Where:

- ( V ) is the volume of the cone
- ( \pi ) is a mathematical constant approximately equal to 3.14159
- ( r ) is the radius of the base of the cone
- ( h ) is the height of the cone

## Example Equations

Here are a few example equations related to cones:

- Equation for calculating the slant height of a cone: $$l = \sqrt{r^2 + h^2}$$
- Equation for calculating the radius of a cone given its slant height and height: $$r = \sqrt{l^2 – h^2}$$
- Equation for calculating the height of a cone given its volume and radius: $$h = \frac{3V}{\pi r^2}$$

## Sphere

**Solid Sphere**

**Introduction** – A solid sphere is a three-dimensional geometric figure in which all points inside the sphere are at the same distance from its center. – It is a type of 3D shape known as a “sphere” with a uniform density throughout.

**Characteristics** – The solid sphere has a well-defined volume, surface area, and mass. – It is completely filled with matter.

**Volume of Solid Sphere** The formula to calculate the volume (\(V_s\)) of a solid sphere is given by: \[ V_s = \frac{4}{3} \pi r^3 \] Where: \(V_s\) = Volume of the solid sphere, \(\pi\) (\(\pi\)) ≈ 3.14159, \(r\) = Radius of the sphere.

**Surface Area of Solid Sphere** The formula to calculate the surface area (\(A_s\)) of a solid sphere is given by: \[ A_s = 4 \pi r^2 \]

Where: \(A_s\) = Surface area of the solid sphere, \(\pi\) (\(\pi\)) ≈ 3.14159, \(r\) = Radius of the sphere

**Mass of Solid Sphere** The mass (\(m_s\)) of a solid sphere can be calculated using the formula: \[ m_s = \text{Density} \times V_s \] Where: \(m_s\) = Mass of the solid sphere, \(\text{Density}\) = Density of the material making up the sphere (usually in \(kg/m^3\)), \(V_s\) = Volume of the solid sphere (calculated using the previous formula)

**Hollow Sphere**

**Introduction** – A hollow sphere is also a three-dimensional geometric figure, but unlike a solid sphere, it has an empty space inside. – It consists of an outer shell or surface with a certain thickness and an inner empty region.

**Characteristics** – The hollow sphere has a well-defined outer radius (\(R\)), inner radius (\(r\)), volume, surface area, and mass. – It is partially filled with matter, mainly in the form of the outer shell.

**Volume of Hollow Sphere** The formula to calculate the volume (\(V_h\)) of a hollow sphere is given by: \[ V_h = \frac{4}{3} \pi (R^3 – r^3) \] Where: – \(V_h\) = Volume of the hollow sphere, \(\pi\) (\(\pi\)) ≈ 3.14159, \(R\) = Outer radius of the sphere, \(r\) = Inner radius of the sphere

**Surface Area of Hollow Sphere** The formula to calculate the surface area (\(A_h\)) of a hollow sphere is given by: \[ A_h = 4 \pi (R^2 – r^2) \] Where: \(A_h\) = Surface area of the hollow sphere, \(\pi\) (\(\pi\)) ≈ 3.14159, \(R\) = Outer radius of the sphere, \(r\) = Inner radius of the sphere

**Mass of Hollow Sphere** The mass (\(m_h\)) of a hollow sphere can be calculated using the formula: \[ m_h = \text{Density} \times V_h \] Where: \(m_h\) = Mass of the hollow sphere, \(\text{Density}\) = Density of the material making up the sphere (usually in \(kg/m^3\)), \(V_h\) = Volume of the hollow sphere (calculated using the previous formula)

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